Minerva Parce Deland (1829 – 1902)

By Susan Roberts

Minerva Parce was born in North Pitcher, NY, on April 19, 1829. Her father, Justus Parce, was a manufacturer of saleratus and a well-known businessman. In 1845 he moved his business from North Pitcher to the Chenango County seat, Norwich NY, where he continued to prosper.

In the mid-nineteenth century packet boat travel was promoted in much the way cruise ship travel is today. Posters proclaimed the benefits of traveling comfortably along the Erie Canal, enjoying the countryside, the exposure to fresh air and the beauty of nature. For those with money it was an idyllic way to travel. The Parce family took such a trip, on a packet boat captained by Daniel Deland, of Fairport NY. Over the course of the journey 19 year old Minerva and 25 year old Daniel fell in love. They were married on Christmas Day, 1848.

The Delands began their married life in Wisconsin, where their son, Levi, was born. They were unhappy in the far west and, in 1850, returned to New York State, to Norwich, where Minerva’s father, Justus Parce, ran an ashery. Daniel apprenticed himself to his father-in-law and learned the manufacture of potash and saleratus (baking soda). In 1852, shortly after the birth of their second child, Leora, the DeLands moved to Fairport to begin their own business, D.B. Deland & Co.

D. B. Deland & Company was a true mom and pop operation. Daniel traveled around the countryside buying wood ashes from farmers who were clearing their fields. He carted them home to Minerva who, with a servant girl, purified them and packaged them for sale as saleratus. Daniel then went out and sold the finished product.

They were highly successful. Their first year’s sales were about $1,000. Henry Deland, Daniel’s younger brother, joined the company as head salesman. Minerva’s brother, J.Y. Parce, was the resident engineer. Within two years the company had outgrown Minerva’s kitchen and was operating from a factory on North Main Street, just north of the Erie Canal. They were selling $9,000 worth of household chemicals a year. Minerva’s time as an active participant in the company ended, although she remained a trusted advisor to her husband and, later, to her son Levi.

In 1856 Daniel and Minerva built a new house at the corner of West Whitney Road and North Main Street. The house overlooked an extensive park and gardens which were laid out between the Deland home and Minerva’s brother’s house at 137 North Main Street. The park was filled with rare trees, shrubs and flowers which Daniel Deland collected on his travels. Three more children were born in that house: Minerva (1856), Stella (1863) and Wayland (1866). Minerva’s life became that of a well-to-do matron. She raised her children, volunteered at her church and was a member of the Chautauqua circle.

In 1872 Daniel Deland died, leaving his 43 year old widow and five children behind – the youngest six years old. In the thirty years that followed Minerva became an active member of her community. She helped raise funds for the construction of the First Baptist Church, which still stands at the corner of Main and Church Streets (the Rose window is in memory of her husband). She taught Sunday School there and for many years was visiting superintendent of Sunday Schools. She was active in both the local Ladies’ Missionary Society and the Monroe County Missionary Association. She was a member of the Rochester Orphan Asylum board and on the advisory board for the Mechanics Institute of Rochester (now RIT).

Her family continued to be important to her. Her mother, Betsey Parce, joined the household in the 1870s and remained there until her death in 1885. Her children grew and married. In 1873 Minerva built a house for her son Levi, and his family, at 176 North Main. In 1876, when her daughter Leora married, she built a house on the edge of Deland Park as a wedding present. Stella married the Reverend James Dickinson and moved to New Jersey. Wayland became an engineer on the Great Lakes, though he maintained his home in Fairport. Her daughter Minerva died in 1892.

In 1902 Minerva Parce Deland contracted typhus fever. She died five weeks later. Her obituary in the local paper, (which referred to her only as Mrs. D. B. Deland) described her as one of Fairport’s most highly esteemed and beloved women and said “Devoted to her home and immediate household, her heart yearned after the whole human race, especially the sick and troubled, the sinning and the heathen. Countless ministries of loving service filled her life. She possessed a rare faculty of drawing people to her and winning their friendship and love.”

Written November 2016

Immigration in Fairport and Perinton - 1825 to 1915

by Lucy McCormick

The Irish Came in Droves

CanalConstructNYSBargec.1905-1918tpm00200New York State Barge Canal construction c. 1905 - 1918.


Fairport’s history is rich with stories of people who left their countries for the promise of a new life in a new land. Before 1820, settlers to this area were from other states.

But this changed in 1825, with an influx of canal workers to the area, many of whom were from Ireland.


Later, triggered by the famine years of the 1840s, a wave of immigration resulted in 1 ½ million Irish coming to the US between 1845 and 1846. In Fairport, more Irish settlers arrived in the late 1850s and 1860s to work as laborers on the New York Central Railroad. They laid track, worked in the warehouses, and worked on the trains. They lived in rooming houses and tenements built on the canal and railroad on the north side of town. They later built homes in the village on East Avenue, High Street Ext. (Tillou Rd.), and in the countryside on Daley, Ryan and Hogan Roads.

Patrick & Jane Ryan Family

Typical of the Irish who immigrated to Fairport was the Patrick and Jane Ryan family. In 1865, Patrick, age 38, was a laborer on the New York Central Railroad. He and his wife, Jane, along with five children – Peter, Patrick, Bridget, Jane, and Mary - lived in a railroad shanty near the New York Central tracks. At this point in their lives, they were probably not considered “Lace Curtain” Irish – but rather “Shanty Irish” or “Pig in the Parlor Irish.”

By 1868, things were looking up for the Ryans. Four more children had joined the family – Ellen, Katherine, Margaret, and Elizabeth. And they were able to purchase land on Tillou Road (High Street Extension) and began farming there. (By that time they were probably able to move their pig out of the parlor!)

By 1872, their two sons, Peter and Patrick, were listed in the 1872 census as “smithies” – blacksmiths. Their older daughters, Bridget and Jane, were domestic servants, sometimes referred to as “Bridgets.”

By 1880, Patrick and Jane still farmed. The older children married or moved, and the youngest were doing well in school. The Ryan’s had become part of Perinton’s agricultural middle class.

But even though some Irish enjoyed a measure of success, many struggled with poor housing, low wages, and feelings of separation from their motherland. Father John Codyre, an Irish priest serving at Assumption Church, made plans to have a memorial cross erected in St. Mary’s for the Irish, a gesture greatly welcomed by the Irish community. As one Perinton resident wrote in 1875:

“We learn with much pleasure that the Reverend Pastor of the Catholic Church…has made arrangements to erect in St. Mary’s Cemetery a memorial cross…in memory of the deceased relatives… of the exiled children of the Emerald Isle.”

Fr. Codyre also supported the new Irish community by acting as local president of the Ancient Order of the Hibernians, an Irish aid group organized in 1895. They met in the Chase Block on North Main Street.


Later the Italians

The pattern of immigration to the United States shifted in the early part of the 20th century: before 1885, the majority of immigrants were from northwestern Europe. By 1907, the majority were from southeastern Europe. Before 1900, Fairport had few Italian people. But an influx of Italian immigrants came and found work on the canal as well as the railroads.

Three families were among the earliest Italian immigrants to settle in Fairport, and their experiences are typical of others who followed.

The Irish and Italian immigrants worked on the North Shore and New York Central Railroad. Shown here is the station in Fairport, NY circa 1852.

Antonio Militello Pace: Tony Pace       

In 1894, Tony Pace arrived in Fairport from Palermo, Italy. He was considered the first permanent Italian resident. He worked on the canal and was eventually appointed a canal “bank watchman” in 1917, earning $40 per month. He later operated a cobbler shop at 28 North Main St. in what was known as the Deal Building.

He and his son Joe became interpreters and advisors to new Italian arrivals. For example, an article in the local newspaper notes that he was called upon to interpret when another Italian immigrant was accused of stealing an air brake hose, a pick axe, lanterns, a torch and shovel from the New York Central Railroad. Tony also sold fruits and imported oils in his grocery store on North Main St. He became known as “the Fairport banana king.” He eventually bought land and built a home east of the Cobb’s canning plant. He passed in 1938 and is buried in St. Mary’s Cemetery with many other immigrants.

Ippolito Orazio: Charlie West

Ippolito Orazio was considered the second Italian resident. Arriving in 1889, he built his home on Water St. He worked as a foreman on the West Shore Railroad. As his name was difficult for his men to pronounce, he became “Charlie West.” He and his family took in boarders, including Salvatore Fiandach, who arrived in 1903, and was later able to send for his family. They also lived temporarily with Charlie West and his family.


Salvatore Bartolotta

Salvatore Bartolotta emigrated in 1906 from Syracuse, Sicily, where he was an orange orchard foreman and taught evening classes in Italian grammar. He sought better opportunities in America. He lived in NYC for 6 months, and subsequently made his way to Fairport. His wife joined him 7 years later, in 1913.

San Sebastian Society, founded by Salvatore Bartolotta, a fraternal benevolent organization, assisted Italian immigrants financially and socially.

Bartolotta worked for the Salter Brothers greenhouses from 1912 to 1919, when they were sold to a Mr. Hart. Bartolotta was determined to start his own business. He was living at 49 John Street (Liftbridge Lane) and bought the land in the rear of his property and built 4 greenhouses. He specialized in lilies, but also grew an immense amount of vegetable plants to sell to farmers.

The San Sebastian Society

Bartolotta was also a founder and president of the San Sebastian Society, a fraternal benevolent organization incorporated on February 23, 1915. It assisted Italian immigrants financially and socially. The founders met in the Fiandach building on North Main St. (now the Pappalardo Law Office) to form the San Sebastian Society.

The Italian immigrants, like others, faced many challenges – acclimation to new customs and language, assimilation, and of course, basic needs of food, shelter, and medical care. To raise money to help members, they held dances in the old Baker Hall and carnivals, some along the canal along Roselawn Ave. Salvatore personally helped fellow Italians get naturalization papers, driving people to the city for naturalization tests in his old Chrysler. The museum’s collection includes a book of minutes from the San Sebastian Society, written in Italian, and a gavel.


The greatest growth in Fairport’s Italian population was between 1905 and 1915. Initially, many single men lived in boarding houses along Railroad St., Water St., and John St. (now Liftbridge Lane). Some roomed with families on N. Main and others settled on Elm and Park Streets. By 1920, many Italian-American families lived in the northeast part of the village, especially along High St., Parce St., Frank St., and East Ave., the area featured in the Society's 2016 House Tour: The Northside Story.


Bartolotta, Josephine; Fairport Looks Back: Immigrant’s Greenhouses Bloom. Perinton-Fairport Post. March 1, 1995
Butler, Helen E., An Invasion That Brought New Life to Perinton. Fairport-Herald Mail. June 4, 1980, 9
Church of the Assumption, Parish History, 1849-1955
Doser, John. Bartolottas, Liebs Were Early Pioneers. Herald-Mail
Fairport Business Directory, 1898
Fairport Herald-Mail, 100th Anniversary. January 20, 1971, 15
Fairport Herald-Mail, June 30, 1938
Fairport Herald-Mail, September 12, 1917, 7
Keplinger, Jean; Remembering the Old Northside School. The Perinton-Fairport Post. July 22, 2000
Monroe County Mail, December 8, 1921
Monroe County Mail, October 22, 1903, 8
Perinton Historical Society, Images of America: Perinton and Fairport and the Erie Canal. Portsmouth, NH: Arcadia Publishing, 2004, 12, 36, 79
Perinton Historical Society, Images of America: Perinton, Fairport, and the Erie Canal. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2001
Roberts, Susan; Education Provided for Immigrants, The Fairport-Perinton Post. January 25, 1995
Roberts, Susan; Irishmen Came to Perinton with Railroad Boom, The Fairport- Herald Mail, 1992

October 30, 2016


Daniel B. DeLand (1823 - 1872)

by Sue Roberts

Daniel DeLand, who was born in Tioga County, NY, went to sea as a young man, working on a whaling ship. He eventually decided to leave the whaling life and, attracted by the business boom which followed the opening of the Erie Canal, returned to central New York State to work on the packet boats plying the Canal. Because his father, Levi DeLand, had moved from Tioga County to a farm east of Fairport, Daniel made Fairport his home as well.

In the mid-nineteenth century packet boat travel was promoted in much the way cruise ship travel is today. Posters proclaimed the benefits of traveling comfortably along the Erie Canal, enjoying the countryside, the exposure to fresh air and the beauty of nature. For those with money it was an idyllic way to travel.

Daniel worked hard and eventually became the captain of a passenger boat traveling between Albany and Buffalo. The Parce family, from Norwich NY, traveled on Daniel’s boat. One of the passengers on that journey was 19 year old Minerva Parce. The two fell in love, married, in 1848, and moved to Wisconsin where their first child, Levi Justus, was born.

In 1850 the DeLands returned to New York State, to Norwich, where Minerva’s father, Justus Parce, ran an ashery. Daniel apprenticed himself to his father-in-law and learned the manufacture of potash and saleratus (baking soda). In 1852 the DeLands returned to Fairport to begin their own business, D.B. DeLand & Co.

Potash and saleratus are made from hardwood ashes, a product readily available in an area where farmers are clearing land and preparing it for the plow. When trees are cut down they can be used for construction – first to build log cabins, then, when lumber mills are available, sawn into boards for the construction of houses, barns etc. Rails are used for fences, the wood provides fuel for heating and cooking. There is, however, little use for stumps. Western New York was covered with virgin forest; the stumps were huge and almost impossible to remove. The common practice was to burn them out – creating plenty of ashes.

The DeLand Company began as a “Mom and Pop” business. Daniel drove his wagon from farm to farm collecting hardwood ash. He supervised the leaching and purifying process ; his wife and her helper packaged the finished product in their kitchen, which Daniel then sold.

DeLandFactory THistorian1881Web400The company moved from the DeLand’s kitchen to a Main Street factory on the north bank of the Erie Canal in 1854. They changed the name of the company to the DeLand Chemical Company. Henry DeLand, Daniel’s younger brother, joined the firm as a salesman, a very successful salesman. Eventually Henry, and the sales force he assembled, were selling $9,000 worth of DeLand household chemical products each year.

In 1859 Joseph Yale Parce, Minerva’s brother, joined the firm as factory manager and resident inventor. His joined-arm crane greatly streamlined the cargo-handling aspect of the DeLand Chemical Company, which used the canal to ship DeLand products to the east coast, via the canal, and to the mid-west, via the canal and the Great Lakes. DeLand Chemical’s household products were found throughout the country.

Daniel was a strong proponent of modernization. He updated the equipment at the factory regularly, using his brother-in-law’s inventions whenever possible. His factory was divided into areas that concentrated on one product or one step in the development of that product. He installed an elevator in the factory.

He became a leading citizen in the community. Daniel DeLand was a Town Justice, an active member of the Democratic Party and an active member of First Baptist Church.

NorthMain185v20DDF2010Web400An Itailnate house at the corner of North Main Street and Whitney Road (185 North Main St.) was the centerpiece of Judge DeLand’s farm.   An elaborate garden of rare flowers and trees, modeled after gardens the DeLands had seen in Europe, extended from their house, along Main Street, south toward Joseph Parce’s house at the corner of Parce Avenue. The grounds included a windmill, a gazebo and a summer house.

By 1872 the DeLands had invested a quarter of a million dollars in their business. They employed over 100 people in the factory and many more as salesmen and packagers. An article in the Rochester Union & Advertiser in July 1872 stated “Fairport, a thriving village of 2,000 owes, if not its actual existence, at least its increase and prosperity to one large industry, that of D.B. DeLand and Company, manufacturer of saleratus, soda, cream of tartar and superior baking powder.”

One evening, after working late at the office, Judge DeLand headed home. He intended to take the elevator down to the first floor. For some reason he did not realize that the elevator car was not in place. He stepped into the empty elevator shaft and fell to his death. He was 49 years old.


Austin R. Conant (1838 - 1925) & Mary T. (Harwood) Conant (1840 - 1921)

By Doris Davis-Fritsch

Austin R. Conant was born[1] in 1839 to Cornelius Conant and his second wife Perlina*. Cornelius and his first wife Malhala, were early settlers of Perinton coming from Herkimer County in 1815. They farmed what was then Arthur Newton’s[2] property located on Carter Road. Daniel Conant, also settled just north of Cornelius’s farm in 1818[3]. Cornelius and Daniel were among the 19 founding members[4] of the Free-will Baptist Church that was instituted in 1820.

Austin attended the Macedon Academy, Wayne County NY in the early 1860s and in 1864 married Mary T. Harwood[5]. They had both became members of the First Baptist Church the prior year[6] and were among the congregation of 287 when the current church, a locally designated property and on the National Register of Historic Places, was built in 1876[7] (94 S. Main) They remained members until their deaths in 1921 and 1925.

The 1872 map shows the Conants owning a home at what is now 24 West Street, next to a large parcel of land to the south owned by Martin Wood and his wife, the former Maria Hobbie[8]. He also owned property south of the village on Turk Hill Road[9]. By 1875, Austin was listed in the census as Head Bookkeeper, Saleratus Factory (the DeLand Chemical Company). At the time, he was head of the household and lived with his wife Mary, son Newton, and a domestic servant. His high level position in the company was likely instrumental in making it a success. He worked for the Deland Company for over 40 years[10].

He purchased an open parcel of land next door from Martin Wood in 1876[11] and likely built the house and carriage barn at 30 West Street soon after. In 1885, Austin and his son opened A. R. Conant & Son[12], a clothing store that replaced Snow & Parce. They purchased the goods of that business and leased their store space on South Main Street. It appears through the absence of advertising and his son’s relocation to Philadelphia[13] that they were only in business for a few years. It later reopened as Snow, Parce and Snow.

In 1886, the year after opening that business the Conants, who had lived in the house for approximately 10 years, sold it to Celestia Ayrault and Emily Ayrault Hobbie[14].

He then bought from Mr. and Mrs. Wood, the lot south of where he sold. “Upon this lot he has started a fine little cottage home to be composed of 6 or 7 rooms, all on the ground floor. Will Barnes, the architect.” The contractor for the building of the “cottage” was Edward Marshall[15]. The home at 36 West Street –was completed in the spring of the next year (1887).[16]

It is not known if he lived at 36 West Street, but the 1898 Census lists the Conant’s on West Avenue. In 1900, he lived on North Street.[17] (Roselawn Avenue) He built a small house at the end of Cherry Street, which was actually 30 Nelson Street. By 1903[18] he was selling this house because of Mrs. Conant’s health. They were to live in Philadelphia with their son, Dr. Conant. The advertising stated that the house was "comparatively new".

By 1913 they were living at 6 Beardsley[19]. This home was likely built around 1910.[20] Mrs. Conant died in 1921[21]. Still living on Beardsley in 1925, Austin died at age 85. They are both buried in the Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Fairport NY.[22]

* Conflicting information from article Monroe Cty Mail of 6.11.1903 on Almira and Charles Plumb. That article states that Cornelius’s first wife was named Almira. According to the Elmwood Cemetery listing Cornelius’s wives were Malhala, wife of Cornelius; d Feb. 26, 1823 aged 31y *m 10d and Perlina, wife of Cornelius; d Feb. 7, 1842 aged 37y 11m 18d

[1]1900 Federal Census

[2] Monroe Cty Mail 6.11.1903

[3] Research in 1959 by Marjorie Snow Merriman – Fairport Historical Museum

[4] Landmarks of Monroe Cty 1895, page 424 & McIntosh History of Monroe County 1788-1888

[5] 1900 Federal Census

[6] Fairport Historical Museum photo hand written on back of image

[7] www.PerintonHistorical Society.org

[8] Fairport Herald Mail 11.23.1882

[9] Town of Perinton Plat Map of 1872. Alvarado Conant and Franklin Olney previously owned this house/land per Research in 1959 by Marjorie Snow Merriman – Fairport Historical Museum

[10] Fairport Herald Mail 8.27.1925

[11] Property Abstract

[12] Fairport Herald Mail 2.6.1885

[13] Fairport Herald Mail 2.3.1888

[14] Property Abstract

[15] Fairport Herald Mail 9.20.1886

[16] Fairport Herald 10.22.1886 and Fairport Herald 4.29.1887

[17] 1900 Federal Census

[18] Monroe Cty Ml 2.5.1903

[19] The 1913 Fairport Business Directory and the1918 Farm Journal Directory

[20] Monroe County Property Assessment Information

[21] Fairport Herald Mail 5.18.1921

[22] Fairport Herald Mail 8.27.1925

William H. Boyland (1866 – 1935)
& Belle W. Westfall Boyland (1872 – 1963)

By Doris Davis-Fritsch

William H. Boyland or Boylan, was born in Parma N.Y to parents Hugh and Louise Boyland. He lived on his parents’ farm with 6 siblings. He received his education in the county schools in Parma and West Greece. After his boyhood days were over at the age of 16, Mr. Boyland went to work at the Hill Brothers in Penfield village and worked 3 years in what was considered a “model mill”.

In 1884, he came to Fairport and worked in the feed and flourmill of George W. Clark that stood where the Rochester, Syracuse and Eastern Railway Trolley Station stood (23 N. Main St.). Wood and Traver bought the mill from Clark, and Mr. Boyland remained with the new firm for several years, and then he went into the feed mill business for himself in Spencerport, NY.

His stay in that town was short, only two years. He came back to Fairport to live in approximately 1892. Shortly after returning, Boyland bought the Fairport Mill[2] as it was called then and continued business on North Main with a partner. He bought out the partner in 1901.[3] He bought feed of all kinds, bought wheat andmanufactured pastry flour, which he sold at retail and wholesale. The wholesale business became large, shipping to in New York City and Boston by the carloads.[4]

The mill building along with a barn was moved to John Street (11 State, now Lift Bridge) when the Rochester, Syracuse and Eastern Railway Company bought the property on Main Street. He continued business there until his death in 1935. The Boyland estate owned the building and equipment and the business was sold to C. H. Maier.[5] Much of the building was destroyed in a 1940 fire.[6] Mr. Maier’s business remained open, but it appears that he moved to a Main Street location near the railroad station.

In 1890, Mr. Boyland married Miss Belle (possibly Blanche) Dudley Westfall[7], the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. J. V. Westfall, of the village.[8] They started housekeeping in the Woodin house on Church Street [9] and then moved to Perrin Street. After two years spent in Spencerport they, upon their return lived in part of the Congregational Church parsonage with Rev. Charles Reeves, then moved to 30 West Street[10], which they later purchased in 1910.[11]

While in Fairport, Mr. Boyland was superintendent of the First Methodist Sunday school for five years. He later joined the First Baptist church and for one term was one of the trustees. He also was a village trustee for one term in 1905/1906[12] and a member of the Masonic Lodge. Mrs. Boyland was involved in the Eastern Star. She also was involved in the Musical Club, sang at Church events and offered her talent for weddings, evenings at home and funerals.[13]

After Mr. Boyland death in 1938[1], Belle Boyland owned the home until 1960 when it was sold to Mr. and Mrs. Lester.[14] She died 3 years later at age 81.[15] To date, the Boylands' ownership of the home was the longest, 50 years.


[1]U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current - Ancestry.com, Monroe Cty Mail 11.7.1915 states 1864

[2] Fairport Herald Mail 11.7.1915

[3] Fairport Herald Mail 1.2.1901

[4] Fairport Herald Mail 11.7.1915

[5] Fairport Herald Mail 6.16.1938

[6] Fairport Herald Mail 2.1.1940

[7] West Street, Fairport: Then and Now An Oral History by Kathryn Parke & Barbara Butler 1919 to 1947

[8] Fairport Herald 11.7.1915

[9] Plat Map 1872 - H. J. Woodin owned 11 West Church St

[10] Fairport Herald Mail 11.7.1915

[11] Property Abstract

[12] Monroe Cty Mail 3.16.1905

[13] Fairport Herald 11.3.1915 and Monroe County Mail 12.27.1906

[14] Property Abstract

[15] Greenvale Cemetery Records


Individual stories about the owners of this property can be found in the Personage section of this webpage or click the name below.

Austin R. & Mary Conant

Celestia Ayrault & Emily Ayrault Hobbie

Issac S. Hobbie

William & Belle Boyland


National Listing of Historic Places  

Owners of National Register listed properties can take advantage of the New York State Historic Homeowners Tax Credit program and/or the State and Federal Commercial Rehab Tax Credit programs. Each program provides tax credits worth 20% of qualified rehab expenses.(2016)

For more information about the National Register.


The current owners (2016) are planning to use the NYS tax credit to help in the final conversion from the 3 family residences into a single family home.


The truss designs have four outside triangle sections with cutout patterns. The inside sections are arched.


From the corner of each of three gable are large pendants with chamfered edges, finial and cut-work brackets.


The south side has a bay window on the first floor, a double window above with a Gothic hood and elaborate truss.


The details on the bay windows include operable shutters and shed-like hoods. Pendants drip from the corners have cut-work brackets.


The southwest and northwest porches posts are supported by stick-like chamfered brackets. This type of bracket also supports the bay window.





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